The oesophagus is the muscular tube that connects the bottom of the neck with the stomach, carrying food though the chest. The muscles in the tube push lumps of chewed food downward. The cells lining the oesophagus are mainly squamous cells, which are flat. However, the cells in the bottom part of the oesophagus can change into ones that are similar to those found in the stomach if, over time, acid reflux/ heartburn has been present.
There are therefore two main types of oesophageal cancer: Squamous Cell Cancer and Adenocarcinoma.